The Poverty of Philosophy


Karl Marx

Answer to the Philosophy of Poverty
by M. Proudhon

Written: First half of 1847
Source:The Poverty of Philosophy, by Karl Marx, Progress Publishers, 1955;
First Published: in Paris and Brussels, 1847
Translated: from the French by the Institute of Marxism Leninism, 1955;
Online Version: mea 1993; Marx/Engels Internet Archive ( 1999;

Thanks to:


Preface to the First German Edition (1885)
Introduction to the Second German Edition (1892)

Chapter One: A Scientific Discovery

Part 1: The Antithesis of Use Value and Exchange Value
Part 2: Constituted Value of Synthetic Value
Part 3: Application of the Law of the Proportionality of Value

Chapter Two: The Metaphysics of Political Economy

Part 1: The Method
Part 2: Division of Labour and Machinery
Part 3: Competition and Monopoly
Part 4: Property or Ground Rent
Part 5: Strikes and Combinations of Workers

The Poverty of Philosophy